and the Beat Generation:
The Beats held a very unique relationship
with the mainstream film industry in the 1950s. As film critic and professor
David Sterritt acknowledged, beat writers of the 1950s “deeply
distrusted the sort of mass-produced culture that Hollywood represented…”
but goeson to say “Hollywood took a complementary position of
opposing beat values(sexual license, anticonsumerism, utopianism, etc)
through strategies ofmockery, co-optation, and containment” (15).
The big studios of the ‘50s were
hesitantto condone or promote the offbeat culture associated with the Beats,
thoughthey were eager to capitalize off the new rebellious youth culture.
Likewise,the Beats had no intention of aligning themselves with the film
industry,but they weren’t above hoping to someday purify Hollywood
of its corruptnature. Some beat writers hoped to use popular films as a
medium to communicatewith a broader and more diverse audience, that which
contained their target-- the squares, the bourgeoisie, and the middle class.
As the Beat movement began to gain popularityin
the mid 1950s, Hollywood seemed to recognize that they could capitalizeoff
this new youth culture, and started making beat related films. Mostof the
films were created simply as entertainment and portrayed the Beatsin highly
unflattering terms. Only a few popular films were more sympatheticto the
Beats and were aligned with beat sensibility. However, it was apparentthat
no true relationship could be held that would make both Hollywoodand the
The major film studios first ventured intobeat
culture in 1954 with Stanley Kramer and Laslo Benedek’s The
WildOne. The Wild One incorporates beat fashion and a few elementsof
beat culture into the movie by portraying the main character (playedby
Marlon Brando) as the leader of a traveling motorcycle gang. Connections
to beat culture can be made in many scenes throughout the movie, particularly
when the gang takes over a restaurant; a little “boppish scat-singing”
takes place, with jazz blaring from a jukebox in the background.
John McClellon Holmes recognized that “the‘50s
were a time of much youth-centered anguish in grown-up circles. Parents,civic
leaders, law officers, and even literary critics were ‘outraged’by
a long list of phenomena” (Sterritt 79). The Wild One
representsthe uncertainty felt towards the new rebellious popular music
and youthculture of the ‘50s, and acts as a warning to the adult
audience that suchbehaviors and trends could occur in any town. Regardless
of the intentionsof the writers, this movie had an important role in influencing
many teensacross America.
Scene from Rebel Without A Cause (Warner Bros,1955)
One of the most famous teen films fromthe
1950s was Nicholas Ray’s Rebel Without a Cause (1955).
Thisearly excursion into beat territory “tapped into pervasive
undercurrents of dissatisfaction in fifties society” and is “stunningly
in tune withthe Beat sensibility” (
Carney2000a, 2). Rebel Without a Cause dispelled the notion
of theperfect nuclear family, and exposed such families as dysfunctional
— “seriouslydamaged by neglect, parental discord, and
repressed sexuality, with adultsunable to understand the simplest needs
of the young” (Dickstein 33). Asa result, the main characters
in the movie, led by James Dean, formed amore nurturing alternative family
Ultimately, Rebel Without a Causegave
a striking yet controversial commentary on American culture. It provideda
voice for many disenfranchised teenagers who had never had a chance tospeak
up, and eloquently articulated many of the problems within society.James
Dean seemed to speak to young people in the mid-1950s ? his performancemade
him an idol among youth, and helped to shape Beat manners and mannerisms.
With the popularization of the Beat Generationin
the late 1950s, Hollywood saw a boom of exploitative films made specificallyabout
or pertaining to beat culture. Many of the filmmakers had only asidelong
interest in the Beat Generation or anything connected with it? the directors
seemed concerned only with reassuring and entertaining their audience.
The exploitative Hollywood films “generally try to defusepotential
interest in beat lifestyles by mocking, parodying, or misrepresenting them”
(Sterritt 141) and certainly would not appear to emulate or endorse the
In Charles Haas’ film The
Beat Generation(later released as This Rebel Age 1959), the
Beats are portrayedunder highly unflattering terms. In this “cop-and-crook
melodrama,” theonly reference made to beat culture is with the
villain, a beatnik namedStan whose hatred of women leads him to commit
a number of rapes. The plotrevolves around an officer’s quest
to track the beatnik rapist down. Thismovie makes no significant references
to any positive aspects of Beat culture,but simply passes it off as “a
bunch of ‘kids’ too immature to accomplishanything
substantial in life or even to notice (or care about) the presenceof a
demented rapist in their midst” (Sterritt 151).
Hollywood’s hostile excursion
into Beatlife was also prevalent in another 1959 film called A Bucket
of Blood,directed by Roger Corma. This film deals with Beats in highly
unconventionaland misleading ways, and again turns the stereotypical beatnik
into a murderousvillain. This time the pseudo-beatnik is an awkward, self-conscious
employeeof a coffeehouse who aspires to be respected by the other beatniks.
Hegets that respect after he secretly murders a number of people and turns
them into clay sculptures. A Bucket of Blood reveals its condescensiontowards
artists and the Beat scene in general and continues with an un-Beatfriendly
tone throughout the movie.
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Copyright 2000. By Mike